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TitleParallels between Jude and 2 Peter
Publication TypeBook Chapter
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsWelch, John W.
EditorHalverson, Taylor
Book TitleNew Testament Minute: Jude
Number of Volumes27
PublisherScripture Central
CitySpringville, UT
KeywordsBible; Jude; New Testament

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Parallels between Jude and 2 Peter

In reading 2 Peter and Jude, it becomes obvious that these two letters are closely related not only in general matters and specific vocabulary words but also, to a great extent, in the overall order of their presentation. But which came first, Jude or 2 Peter, is a question more difficult to determine. Several reasons point in the direction of Jude having been written first.

For example, 2 Peter is longer than Jude. Thus, it is easier to see 2 Peter as being built upon Jude by adding elaborations, repetitions, and additional material than to imagine why Jude would have found it worthwhile to condense 2 Peter, which is already a short epistle.

This would also explain why 2 Peter repeats several of the words that it has in common with Jude. Repeating the words introduced singularly by Jude makes sense for Peter, whose audience would have known the Epistle of Jude and would have seen that repetition as emphasizing familiar terms, whereas the more straightforward rhetoric of Jude makes good sense as a blunt first warning and offensive challenge against the troublemakers who had just moved into the nascent Christian congregations.

Agreeing that 2 Peter was indeed written by Peter as a final farewell, one can well imagine that Peter would not have seen that as a good time to launch a new counterattack against apostates or disrupters. But such a time would have been a natural opportunity to emphasize words from another previously known apostolic text.

The explicit quotation from the pseudepigraphical book of 1 Enoch in Jude 1:14–15 makes perfect sense in its rhetorical context if Jude was written first. From Peter’s position of authority, using this early Jewish noncanonical writing would have been unbecoming, explaining its unique omission in 2 Peter. Adding such a reference to an authoritative farewell speech of the presiding Apostle could, however, have struck Christian readers as irrelevant if not presumptuous.

The following table includes the complete text of Jude verse by verse. Words found in Jude are bolded if they appear in comparative verses found in 2 Peter, and they are equally bolded in the words found anywhere in 2 Peter.

The Greek words behind these English translations help to see the precision of most of these duplications, where vocabulary found in the full text of the Epistle of Jude is then reused in 2 Peter, often identically [in bracketed boldface italics], and occasionally with synonyms, expansions, or embellishments [in bracketed boldface text].

Jude 1:1

Jude, a servant [doulos] of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them [tois] that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called [klētois]:


2 Peter 1:1

Simon Peter, a servant [doulos] . . . of Jesus Christ to them [ēmōn] . . . obtained through the righteousness of our God and of Savior Jesus Christ


2 Peter 1:3

hath called [kalesantos] us to glory and virtue

Jude 1:2

Mercy unto you, and peace [eirēnē], and love, be multiplied [plēthyntheiē].


2 Peter 1:2

grace and peace [eirēnē] be multiplied [plēthyntheiē] unto you

Jude 1:3

Beloved [agapētoi], when I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation, it was needful for me to write unto you and exhort you that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints. (See also Jude 1:17, 20 beloved [agapētoi])


2 Peter 3:1, 8, 14, 17

beloved [agapētoi]

Jude 1:4

For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation [krima], ungodly [asebeis] men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness [aselgeia], and denying [arnoumenoi] the only Lord God [despotēn], and our Lord Jesus Christ [kurion hēmon Iesoun Christon].


2 Peter 1:8

our Lord Jesus Christ [kurion hēmon Iesoun Christon]


2 Peter 2:1

the Lord [despotēn]


2 Peter 2:1

denying [arnoumenoi]


2 Peter 2:2, 7, 18

lasciviousness [aselgeian, aselgeiai, aselgeiais]


2 Peter 2:3

judgment [krima]


2 Peter 2:6

live ungodly [asebein]

Jude 1:5

I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this, how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed [apōlesen] them that believed not.


2 Peter 2:1

bring upon themselves swift destruction [apōleias]


2 Peter 2:3

and their damnation [apōleia] slumbereth not

Jude 1:6

And the angels [aggelous] which kept [tērēsantas] not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved [tetērrēken] everlasting chains [desmois] under darkness [zophon] unto the judgment [eis krisin] of the great day.


2 Peter 2:4

God spared not the angels [aggelōn] that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains [sirais] of darkness [zophou], to be reserved [tēroumenous] unto judgment [eis krisin].

Jude 1:7–8

Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities [poleis] about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going [apelthousai] after strange flesh [opisō sarkos heteras], are set forth for an example [deigma], suffering the vengeance of eternal fire [pyros]. Likewise also these filthy dreamers defile the flesh [sarka miainousin],


2 Peter 2:6

turning the cities [poleis] of Sodom and Gomorrha into ashes [compare fire] . . . an example [hypodeigma] to those that after should live ungodly


2 Peter 2:10

them that walk [poreumenous] after the flesh [opisō sarkos] in the lust of uncleanness [miasmou]

Jude 1:8

despise dominion [kuriotēta athetousin], and speak evil [blasphēmousin] of dignities (that is, glorious ones) [doxas]. 


2 Peter 2:10

and despise government [kuriotētos kataphronountas], presumptuous, selfwilled, they are not afraid to speak evil [ou tremousin blasphēmountes] of dignities (in other words, glorious ones) [doxas]

Jude 1:9

Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke [epitimēsai] thee.


2 Peter 2:15

Balaam was rebuked [exakolouthēsantes]

Jude 1:10

But these speak evil of those things which they know not: but what they know naturally, as brute beasts, in those things they corrupt themselves.

Jude 1:11

Woe unto them! for they have gone in the way of Cain, and ran greedily after the error of Balaam for reward [misthon], and perished in the gainsaying of Core.


2 Peter 2:13

And having done unrightousness they shall receive the reward [misthon] of unrighteousness


2 Peter 2:15

Balaam was rebuked . . . who loved [ēgapēsen] the reward [misthon] of unrighteousness.

Jude 1:12

These are spots [spilades] in your “feasts of charity” [agapais], when they feast [suneuōchoumenoi] with you, feeding themselves without fear: clouds they are without water [anhydroi], carried about of winds; trees whose fruit withereth, without fruit [akarpa], twice dead, plucked up by the roots;


2 Peter 1:8

neither be barren nor unfruitful [akarpous] in the knowledge of our Lord


2 Peter 2:13

spots [spiloi] they are and blemishes, . . . while they feast [suneuōchoumenoi] with you


2 Peter 2:16

who loved [ēgapēsen] the reward [misthon] of unrighteousness [adikias]


2 Peter 2:17

wells without water [anhydroi]

Jude 1:13

raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars [asteres planētai], to whom is reserved [hois tetērētai] the blackness of darkness [skotous] for ever.


2 Peter 2:4

reserved [tetērētai]


2 Peter 2:17

clouds that are carried with a tempest, to whom [hois] the mist of darkness is reserved [skotos tetērētai]

Jude 1:14

And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands [muriasin] of his saints [hagiais],


1 Enoch 1:9

Behold, he will arrive with ten million of the holy ones


Deuteronomy 33:2 LXX

with ten thousand [muriasun] holy ones [kodēs]

Jude 1:15

To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.


1 Enoch 1:9

to execute judgment upon all


2 Peter 2:6

ungodly [asebesin]

Jude 1:16

These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts [kata tas epithumias autōn poreuomenoi]; and their mouth speaketh great swelling words [lalei hyperogka], having men’s persons in admiration because of advantage.


2 Peter 3:3

walking after their own lusts [kata tas idias autōn poreuomenoi]


2 Peter 2:18

speak great swelling words [hyperogka] of vanity

Jude 1:17

But, beloved, remember [mnēsthē] ye the words [rēmatōn] which were spoken before [proeirēmenōn] of the apostles [hypo tōn apostolōn] of our Lord [kuriou] Jesus Christ;


2 Peter 3:2

that ye may be mindful [mnēsthē] of the words [rēmatōn] which were spoken before [proeirēmenōn] by the holy prophets and of commandment of us the apostles [hypo tōn apostolōn] of the Lord [kuriou] and Saviour

Jude 1:18

How that they told you there should be mockers [empaiktai] in the last [eschatou] time, who should walk after [poreuomenoi] their own ungodly [asebesiōn] lusts [epithumias].


2 Peter 2:5, 6; 3:7

ungodly [asebesin]


2 Peter 2:18

[epithumiais]; 3:3 own lusts [idias epithumias]


2 Peter 3:3

in the last [eschatōn] days scoffers [empaiktai] after their own lusts [epithumias] walking [poreuomenoi]

Jude 1:19

These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit [pneuma].


2 Peter 1:21

the Holy Spirit [pneumatos hagios]

Jude 1:20

But ye, beloved [agapētoi], building up [epoikodomeuntes] yourselves on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost,

Jude 1:21

Keep yourselves in the love [agape] of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.

Jude 1:22

And of some have compassion, making a difference:

Jude 1:23

And others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire; hating even the garment spotted [espilōmenon] by the flesh.


2 Peter 3:14

without spot [aspiloi]

Jude 1:24

Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling [or stumbling, aptaistous], and to present you [standing, stēsai] faultless [amōmous] before the presence [katenōpion] of his glory [doxēs] with exceeding joy [agalliasei].

Jude 1:25

To the only wise God our Savior, be glory [doxa] and majesty, dominion and power, both now and into the day everlasting [kai nun kai eis hēmran aiōnos]. Amen.


Matthew 5:12

rejoice and be exceeding glad [agalliasthe]


2 Peter 1:1

of our God and Savior Jesus Christ


2 Peter 1:11

of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ


2 Peter 2:20

knowledge of the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ


2 Peter 3:18

knowledge of the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, to him be glory [doxa] both now and into the day everlasting [kai nun kai eis hēmran aiōnos]. Amen.


Matthew 6:13

thine is the kingdom, power, glory [doxa], for ever. Amen.